PCV – pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

PCV Vaccine Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacteria that can cause bacteremia, pneumonia, ear infections, and meningitis. The disease Invasive pneumococcal disease causes serious problems.  Formerly the 2nd more common cause of meningitis in children.  After introduction of Hib vaccine, it is currently the most common cause of meningitis. Spread via respiratory droplets or direct contact. Risk factors include: HIV infection, immune compromised, daycare, no spleen, Alaska Native, Navajo and White Mountain Apache groups. ~17,000 cases per year in the U.S. and 700 cases of meningitis per year before the vaccine was introduced. The vaccine CDC recommended schedule: 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 12-15 months. Who should not get the vaccine? Ingredients: saccharides, carrier protein, polysorbate 80, succinate buffer, 125 mcg aluminum. Special topics At what age does invasive pneumococcal disease typically occur? Why is this important? Does this vaccine protect against all the serotypes of Streptococcus?   Research citations for PCV Shabir A Madhi and Marta C Nunes. The potential impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Africa: Considerations and early lessons learned from the South African experience. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016 Feb; 12(2): 314–325. Tina Q. Tan * Pediatric Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in the United States in the Era of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2012 Jul; 25(3): 409–419. Increasing rates of new serotypes of S. pneumoniae. Hamborsky J, Kroger A, Wolfe S. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Pneumococcal disease.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 13th ed. Washington D.C. Author unknown.  Polysorbate-80.  Environmental Working Group. Web. 6 May 2017. Dagan R, Givon-Lavi N, Porat N, Greenberg D. The effect of an alternative reduced-dose infant schedule and a second year catch-up schedule with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal carriage: a randomized controlled trial. Vaccine. 2012 Jul 20;30(34):5132-40. Weinberger DM, Malley R, Lipsitch M. Serotype replacement in disease after pneumococcal vaccination. Lancet. 2011 Dec 3;378(9807):1962-73. Daniel R. Feikin, Eunice W. Kagucia, Jennifer D. Loo, et al. Serotype-Specific Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction: A Pooled Analysis of Multiple Surveillance Sites. PLoS Med. 2013 Sep; 10(9): e1001517. World Health Organization (2012) Estimated Hib and...

Lesson tags: PCV, pneumococcus, streptococcus pneumoniae
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