MMR vaccine is designed to protect against three things: measles, mumps and rubella.
Measles is a virus which causes high fever, lethargy, cough, nasal discharge, conjunctivitis and a characteristic rash.About 30% of infected patients will have complications, and 1 in 5 will be hospitalized.1 in 1,000 develop encephalitis, and between 1 in 500 and 1 in 1,000 will die.
Highly contagious, spread through respiratory dropletsin the air.
Worldwide measles infection is the 5th most common cause of death in children under 5.
Rare in the United States.Last estimates were 31-39 million illnesses worldwide in a single year.
Virus that usually causes swelling of the parotid glands, but can affect any organ system.Adolescent males can get swelling of the testes (called orchitis) which can reduce fertility or even cause sterility in rare cases.Can also cause miscarriage.Rarely causes encephalitis or deafness.
Contagious, but less so than measles or chickenpox.Spread via respiratory droplets (airborne) or by direct contact.
Before the vaccine: 200,000+ cases.Now: rare, with periodic outbreaks of up to a few thousand patients.
Virus that causes a fever and characteristic rash. Rarely causes encephalitis.
Is a teratogen if Mom contracts rubella in pregnancy.Leads to severe birth defects or miscarriage. Lasting effects of congenital rubella are severe, with no known treatment available.
Spread through respiratory droplets in the air, or through the placenta. Moderately contagious.
Before: 20,000 cases of congenital rubella per year.Now: rare.
Is a live, attenuated virus.
CDC recommended schedule: 12-15 months, 4-6 years.
Who should not get the vaccine?
Ingredients: sorbitol, sodium phosphate, sucrose, sodium chloride, gelatin, human albumin, fetal bovine serum, 25 mcg neomycin.
Research citations for MMR
Hamborsky J, Kroger A, Wolfe S. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Measles.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 13th ed. Washington D.C
Tae BS1, Ham BK, Kim JH, Park JY, Bae JH. Clinical features of mumps orchitis in vaccinated postpubertal males: a single-center series of 62 patients. Korean J Urol. 2012 Dec;53(12):865-9. doi: 10.4111/kju.2012.53.12.865. Epub 2012 Dec 20.
Leung JH1, Hirai HW, Tsoi KK. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of tetravalent vaccine for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) in healthy children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2015;14(8):1149-57
Ma SJ1, Xiong YQ1, Jiang LN1, Chen Q2. Risk of febrile seizure after measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Vaccine. 2015 Jul 17;33(31):3636-49
“In this cohort, monovalent measles vaccination status is not associated with inflammatory bowel disease by age 26 yr. Older age at measles vaccination needs to be examined in other studies to confirm whether it is a genuine risk for Crohn’s disease.”
MMR vaccine timing – giving MMR before 15 months is associated with less febrile seizures.
Wilson K1, Ducharme R2, Ward B3, Hawken S4. Increased emergency room visits or hospital admissions in females after 12-month MMR vaccination, but no difference after vaccinations given at a younger age. Vaccine. 2014 Feb 26;32(10):1153-9.
Increased number of emergency visits in females only after MMR vaccination. “…translates to 192 excess events per 100,000 females vaccinated compared to the number of events that would have occurred in 100,000 males vaccinated.”
“The available data clearly indicate that ITP is very rare and the only vaccine for which there is a demonstrated cause-effect relationship is the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine that can occur in 1 to 3 children every 100,000 vaccine doses.”
“ Following MMR vaccination, 102 infants came for post vaccination sampling of which 92 per cent were seropositive for measles, 100 per cent for mumps and 98 per cent for rubella. In the age group of 15-18 months, of the 120 children, 67 (56%) were seronegative for measles, 84 (70%) for mumps and 86 (71.6%) for rubella. In 50 per cent of the children, there was a history of measles immunization at 9 months of age. After MMR vaccination, 100 children came for post vaccination sampling and seropositivity of 92, 96 and 94 per cent was observed for measles, mumps and rubella, respectively. The rise in the pre- and post-immunization geometrical mean titre was significant (P < 0.05) for each component of the vaccine in both the age groups.”
Ceyhan M1, Kanra G, Erdem G, Kanra B. Immunogenicity and efficacy of one dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine at twelve months of age as compared to monovalent measles vaccination at nine months followed by MMR revaccination at fifteen months of age. Vaccine. 2001 Aug 14;19(31):4473-8.